Educating imaginative, resilient leaders for God's changing world.

Faculty Publications and Events  

Brennan Breed, Assistant Professor of Old Testament, taught a class at the Church of the Epiphany on the topic of Justice in the Book of Micah on February 8. He also taught a class on Justice in the Old Testament at Epiphany on March 9. Brennan submitted an essay, “Reception of the Psalms: The Example of Psalm 91,” for the Oxford Handbook of the Psalms, edited by Bill Brown, which was published in March. In May, Brennan’s first monograph, Nomadic Text: A Theory of Biblical Reception History will be available from Indiana University Press. On April 21, Brennan taught a class on the social and economic context of the 8th century BCE prophets at Trinity Anglican Mission. He taught a two-week course on Noah in Bible and Film at First Presbyterian Church in Atlanta on April & May 4. On May 18, Brennan preached at Druid Hills Presbyterian Church. Brandon is also an editor for "Bible Odyssey," produced by the Society of Biblical Literature and funded by a grant from the NEH, which recently went live online He has three articles published there: The Reception of Job in Visual Art,; How was the Bible Written and Transmitted?,; and What are the Earliest Versions and Translations of the Bible?,

William Brown, William Marcellus McPheeters Professor of Old Testament, published Wisdom’s Wonder: Character, Creation, and Crisis in the Bible’s Wisdom Literature (Wm. B. Eerdmans) and the edited volume The Oxford Handbook of the Psalms (New York / Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014). Over 40 contributions are featured, including essays from Kim Long, Brennan Breed, Walter Brueggemann, Michael Morgan, and David Rensberger. Bill gave two lectures at First Presbyterian Church in Americus, Georgia, on January 21-22. He was the theologian in residence at the University of Kansas, sponsored by the Ecumenical Campus Ministry, February 15-18, giving four lectures and leading worship. In April 26-27, Bill taught a class "Fifty Shades of Green: The Bible's Ecology of Wonder" in the Stalcup School of Theology for the Laity at Brite Divinity School.

Kelly Campbell, Associate Dean and Director of John Bulow Campbell Library, was elected to serve on the American Theological Library Association's (ATLA) Board of Directors. ATLA members elected four candidates to serve a three-year term, 2014-2017.  

Anna Carter Florence, Peter Marshall Associate Professor of Preaching, preached for chapel service at McAfee School of Theology in Atlanta. In April, she preached, lectured and led a workshop for the Festival of Preaching Northwest in Seattle. In May, Anna will preach and lecture at the Festival of Homiletics in Minneapolis.

Kim Clayton, Director of Contextual Education, is still moderating the Session for Ormewood Park Presbyterian Church, and acting as the Committee on Ministry liaison for St. Andres Presbyterian Church’s Pastor Nominating Committee. On February 23, she preached at Hillside Presbyterian.

Pamela Cooper-White, Ben G. and Nancye Clapp Gautier Professor of Pastoral Theology, Care and Counseling, returned on January 31 from Vienna, Austria, where she was the 2013-14 Fulbright-Freud Visiting Scholar of Psychoanalysis. She gave an interview in February on Radio Österreich ORF about Sabina Spielrein, psychoanalysis, and religion - online (in German). Her article "Why Didn't Freud Reject Pfister?" was published in Pastoral Psychology 63 (2014):91-95, and ), and 5 entries in the “Countertransference,” “Intersubjectivity,” “Melanie Klein,” “Bridget, Saint,” and “Birgitta of Sweden,” in the Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, 2nd ed.,  (New York: Springer Science, 2013; online at, 2012).  On March 1, Pam represented Columbia Seminary as a Delegate to the Inauguration of Dr. Lallene Rector as the first woman and first layperson elected to be President at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary in Evanston (Chicago), IL.  On May 2, she was the keynote plenary speaker at a conference entitled "The Way to Wellness: Coping with Mental Illness and Trauma through Pastoral and Psychological Counseling" at Baptist Health, Jacksonville, FL. Pam co-led two sessions of a Professional Boundaries Training for Columbia Seminary with Prof. Kathy Dawson on March 26 and 27.  On June 14 she will be an invited plenary presenter, speaking on her Fulbright research work-in-progress: “’Dirty Old Gods’: Religion and Freud’s Wednesday Night Psychological Society from Habsburg Vienna to the Holocaust” to the Society for Pastoral Theology annual study conference.  She recently signed a contract from Fortress Press for a book on “Ministry Practices” to be co-authored this summer with Dr. Michael Cooper-White, President of Gettysburg Lutheran Seminary, for a new Fortress series Foundations in Ministry for persons discerning about seminary and a call to ministry.

Kathy Dawson, Associate Professor of Christian Education, Director of the MAPT Program, co-taught the Compass Points class for Camp and Conference certification students on Program Design and Implementation with Joel Winchip in March. Along with Pamela Cooper-White, she co-led boundary training and child protection with students at Columbia Seminary. In April, Kathy co-taught a Lifelong Learning event with Rev. Anne Apple (MDiv ’01) called Baptism and Beyond: Scaffolding a Life of Discipleship. Kathy is the current moderator of Educator Certification for the PC(USA) and has a new Gracie, the Fish story out for One Great Hour of Sharing. There is now a Gracie archive on the PC(USA) website at, and Gracie has her own Facebook page. Kathy was also delighted to give the charge to Nick Setzer (MDiv ’11, MAPT ’12) at Northminster Presbyterian Church in Atlanta on March 9.

Mark Douglas, Professor of Christian Ethics; Director of MATS Program, taught on Jewish and Christian understandings of the land/Israel at a joint First Presbyterian Church, Atlanta-Temple gathering in January. In February, he taught at First Presbyterian Church, Atlanta and worked with Georgia Interfaith Power and Light to host their annual awards banquet. In March, Mark presented a paper on links between pacifist movements and environmental movements at the Southeastern Commission for the Study of Religion meeting, attended a small conference on theology and ethics at Yale Divinity School, and was interviewed by a class at Earlham School of Religion on theology and public life. He attended a State Bar of Georgia Investigative Panel Meeting in Greensboro, GA. In April, Mark taught at First Presbyterian Church, Atlanta where his wife is the Associate Pastor for Christian Education and at Trinity Presbyterian Church. He will also preside at a Georgia Interfaith Power and Light fundraiser in the old 4th Ward. On May 5, Mark worked with colleagues at Stellenbosch University and the University of the Western Cape to create an interdisciplinary, interscholastic, international, and internet-based conversation about John DeGruchy's book, Led Into Mystery, using a Google Hangouts platform with about 20 South African and 10 CTS faculty members gathered. He will be teaching a DMin Seminar on "Israel, Palestine, and the Future of the Middle East" in May at the United Nations Office co-sponsored by the United Nations Ministry of the PCUSA and Auburn Theological Seminary in New York.  

Sarah Erickson, Director of Lifelong Learning, preached and led worship on March 16 for both services at Northminster Presbyterian, Macon, GA, where Alumni/ae Council and S3 group member C. Jarred Hammet (’85, DMin ‘03) is pastor, and on May 25 at Carrollton Presbyterian Church, where Jan Stewart Tolbert is pastor. She authored five sessions in Unit II, “What the Prophets Foretold” of the Spring 2014 THE PRESENT WORD curriculum (leader guide, student book and worship leaflets for each session). Sarah contributed the morning and evening devotionals during Holy Week at CASA: An Experiment in Doing Church Online ( The more than 1110 members of this global community come from the UK, Western Europe, Africa, Canada, the US, Latin America, South Asia and Australia. They represent diverse faith traditions and give us a preview of what the next Christianities might look like. On April 26, Sarah participated in the Time of Remembrance during the Georgia State Chapter PEO Annual Convention, offering the meditation and serving as song leader. She is a member of host Chapter V.

Israel Galindo, Associate Dean of Lifelong Learning, published “Ten Leadership Quotes from Edwin Friedman,” in Perspectives on Congregational Leadership blog. During January, he gave guest lectures in the Integrations course. For S3: Sabbath, Study, and Service, Center for Lifelong Learning he spoke in February on “How Professionals Learn and Experts Work (or “What is the difference between a hack and a professional?”),” “Peer Learning for the Journey (or Where do we go from here?),” and “Educational Approaches for Lifelong Learning.” He published “Deaning from the Right Side of the Brain,” in the Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning Theological and Religion's  blog for Theological School Deans. In the Perspectives on Congregational Leadership blog Israel published “Don't do these 10 things when dealing with reactivity,” “Six responses of well-differentiated leaders,” “The Fascinating Power of Homeostasis,” and “Fixing the Right Thing.” In March, Israel spoke at Groveton Baptist Church, Alexandria, VA on “Expanding Your Teaching Repertoire,”and Good Shepherd Baptist Church, Petersburg, VA on “Expanding Your Teaching Repertoire,” “Teaching to the Spiritual Brain,” and “Dialogical Learning Lab.” He published “20 Ways for Deans to Say No,” in the Blog for Theological School Deans, Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion, and “Visible Learning and the Science of How We Learn,” John Hattie and Gregory Yates. New York: Routledge, 2014, reviewed in The Journal of Teaching Theology & Religion. He will participate in the Advisory Committee Meeting, Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning. Israel will speak on “Introduction to Spiritual Direction,” for the MacAfee School of Theology, and participate in the Consultation with Healthy Congregations, Inc., Columbus, OH. He published "You Gotta Have a Plan (Why you need a give year scope and sequence)" in the Blog for Theological School Deans, Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion. He had an illustration published in Sketch Club Magazine, Spring 2014. In March, Israel published "Five Essential Functions of Effective Leaders," in Perspectives on Congregational Leadership blog. He reviewed the book Education for the Internet Age by Rubert Wegerif (Dialogic) in the Journal of Teaching Theology & Religion. Vol 17. No. 2, April 2014. Israel presented a Lenten art exhibit at the Harrington Center "Poetry, Art, and the Spirituality of Imagination". In April, he published "Leading from WHAT center?" in the blog for Theological School Deans, Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion and "Why are all systems so similar?" in Perspectives on Congregational Leadership blog. He published "9 Ways to Dean Like a Pirate," in the Blog for Theological School Deans, Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion. Israel wrote "Do You Make These 7 Leadership Mistakes When Dealing With Crises?" in Perspectives on Congregational Leadership. In May, he published "The Dean and Program Assessment:  A Portable Enrollment  Infographic" in the Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning blog for Theological School Deans. Israel also attended the Faculty Consultation with Church School of Divinity of the Pacific, Berkeley, CA.

Joan Gray, Interim Vice President for Student Services and Dean of Students, has published a new book titled The Sailboat Church (WJK). On March 30, she preached at Presbyterian Women Sunday at Second Presbyterian Church, Chattanooga, TN. On April 4-6, Joan led a session retreat and preached at Central Presbyterian Church, Chambersburg, PA. On May 2-4, she preached and spoke on spiritual leadership at the meeting of Palo Duro Presbytery and preached at First Presbyterian Church, Lubbock, Texas.

William Harkins, Senior Lecturer of Pastoral Theology and Care, led the Officer's Retreat for Newnan Presbyterian Church (along with CTS alums Harry Barrow and DC Adams). He led a workshop for the Episcopal Diocese of Alabama at St. Luke's, Mountain Brook, on "Staying Healthy in Ministry," sponsored by the Church Pension Fund. Bill was keynote speaker at the Vine Pastoral Counseling Center in Huntsville, Alabama on "Pastoral Resilience and Imagination". He attended the CPG/CREDO 2014 Faculty Convocation in Memphis, Tennessee, where he co-led a workshop on psychological health among clergy. Bill led a workshop on Psychological Resilience in Ministry at the 2014 Consortium of Endowed Episcopal Parishes, in Atlanta. He led a Diocesan Workshop on "Safeguarding God's People," sexual boundary training at the Cathedral of St. Philip. Bill attended the Georgia Association for Marriage and Family Therapists conference at St. Simon's Island, Georgia. He served as Faculty for CREDO for Recently Ordained Clergy, Camp Beckwith Alabama in May. Bill served as consultant/advisor to the Diocese of Atlanta "The Road Episcopal Service Corps Fellows" at Emmaus House. He led the Vestry Retreat for St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Newnan.

Steve Hayner, President, preached for the ordination of Yeonkwon Jeong at the Korean Community Presbyterian Church on March 9. On March 16, he preached at the First Presbyterian Church, Spartanburg, SC, taught adult Sunday School, and gave a Reformed Theology Seminar in the evening. On March 18, Steve led the Vesper Service at the Lenbrook Retirement Community. On March 20, he spoke at the presidents’ lunch for the Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities. On April 3-5, Steve spoke at a pastors & leaders conference for International Justice Mission and led the closing communion service for their Global Prayer Gathering.

Paul Huh, Assistant Professor of Worship and Director of Korean American Ministries, published The Mystery Worshipper미국교회 이렇게 예배한다  by DongYun Press, Seoul, Korea, November 2013. This Korean book illustrates Sunday worship services of 30 different Atlanta and U.S. congregations that I visited for the past 5 years. The chapters are 1. Mainline Protestant Churches; 2. Independent Evangelical Churches; 3. Orthodox and Roman Catholic; 4. Afro-American Churches; 5. Multi-Cultural/Multi-Ethnic Churches. There are 3 academic papers included as appendix for theoretical and historical framework for crossing worship boundaries defined by each tradition and communities: 1. Recovery of Beauty: A Theology of Korean-American Worship and Preaching, 2. Martin Bucer and Strassburg Liturgy, 3. Liturgy and Coenobite Community in Taizé. Additionally, on March 2 Paul preached at Binnerri English Ministry and provided a choir workshop at Binnerri Church. On March 9, he performed a Bach Cello Suite for Offertory at Pleasant Hill Presbyterian Church, Duluth. In April, the Korean American Ministries (KAM) published a new journal issue, No. 6 "Twelve Influential Early Korean Preachers." The whole issue is available in English and can be downloaded at On April 13, Paul preached at Athens Korean Presbyterian, Athens, GA. On April 30-May 3, he attended the Presbyteries' Committee on Exams, San Antonio, TX. On May 4 and 11, Paul preached at Athens Korean Presbyterian Church, Athens, GA. On May 18, he will preach and lead a worship workshop at Denver Korean Presbyterian Church, Denver, CO. On May 19-June 12, Paul will travel to Korea in partnership with Presbyterian University and Theological Seminary, Seoul; Honam University and Theological Seminary, Kwangju; Hannam University, Daejun, Korea to preach and lead workshops. On June 14-21, he will attend General Assembly, Detroit, MI, presenting a Recommendation from National Racial Ethnic Ministry Task Force as the chair. On June 23, Paul will give "Atlanta Worship Communities," a lecture presentation to visiting pastors/Th.D. students from Presbyterian University and Theological Seminary, Korea. On July 10-12, he will attend the North American Academy of Liturgy, Minneapolis, MN, Committee meeting. In the Fall Semester 2014, Paul will be on sabbatical at Collegeville Institute for Ecumenical and Cultural Research, Collegeville, MN; a Benedictine Community for ecumenical and cultural research and known as an incubation place for liturgical renewal. He will be engaging in the writing project of a book, "Lament to Praise: Introduction to Korean Worship" (Order of Saint Luke Publication). The Collegeville Institution granted him a prestigious "Kilian McDonnell Fellowship in Faith and Culture" as the Resident Scholar.

Elizabeth Johnson, J. Davison Philips Professor of New Testament, did a webinar for the Presbyterian Outlook on February 11, “Preaching the Lectionary Texts in Lent.” Feasting on the Gospels, vol. 3 Mark will be released in June. On April 22, Feasting on the Gospels: Matthew vols. 1 and 2 will be awarded the Reference Book of the Year award from the Academy of Parish Clergy.

Kimberly Long, Associate Professor of Worship, led a worship event for New Harmony Presbytery (SC) on March 1. She will serve as an ecumenical observer for the PCUSA at the Anglican Communion Consultation on Marriage on June 3-6, in Kansas City, MO. Kim will serve as faculty for the Yale Congregations Project on June 22-25, in New Haven, CT. She also announced the fourth of six volumes of the Feasting on the Word Worship Companion was published (Year A, Vol. 2, Trinity to Reign of Christ).

Michael Morgan, Seminary Musician, played the organ for the opening worship for the Southeastern conference to celebrate the new Presbyterian hymnal, “Glory to God,” on February 21-22 at Central Presbyterian Church, Atlanta. He also spent a February weekend in Plains, GA, as the guest of President and Mrs. Jimmy Carter, where he assisted in Mr. Carter's Sunday school class, displayed a collection of Reformation English Bibles, and led evening worship at Maranatha Baptist Church. Michael lectured at the North American Symposium on John Knox: The Heritage & Future of American Presbyterianism on March 7-8 at Montreat to celebrate John Knox's 500th birthday.

Deborah Flemister Mullen, Dean of Faculty & Executive Vice President, Associate Professor of American Christianity and Black Church Studies and about 80 other pastors and ordained clergy were inducted into the Martin Luther King, Jr. Board of Preachers, Board of Sponsors and Collegium of Scholars of Morehouse College, in Atlanta on April 3, 2014. This annual event recognizes pastors and other clergy who have demonstrated a commitment to the principles and practices of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandi.  Selection is based on recommendation of current members of the college. 

Cam Murchison, Jr, Professor Emeritus of Ministry, Dean of Faculty & Executive VP, will be preaching at Black Mountain Presbyterian Church on the theme of Earth Care, Black Mountain, NC on May 25. On Sundays in July, he will teaching a class entitled “Worrying about what we eat, drink and wear” at First Presbyterian Church, Asheville, NC.

Rodger Nishioka, Benton Family Associate Professor of Christian Education, provided the lead article for @thispoint: an examination of the relationship between imagination and theology in five acts. One of the responses was provided by Kim Clayton, Director of Contextual Education. They entire issue is available at He led a church officers' retreat and preached at Shepherd of the Valley Presbyterian Church in Albuquerque, NM. Rodger delivered the Rogers Lectures and preached at First Presbyterian Church, Bennetsville, SC. He led a men's retreat and preached at Great Bridge Presbyterian Church in Chesapeake, VA.  Rodger lectured and preached at Gaithersburg Presbyterian Church in Gaithersburg, MD. He led an annual retreat for Celtic Cross Student Gathering for Presbyterian College in Clinton, SC. He preached and lectured for Stembler Sunday at First Presbyterian Church, Atlanta, GA. Rodger was the keynote speaker for a Presbytery of Middle Tennessee Leadership event and taught at Westminster Presbyterian Church in Nashville. He preached at the ordination service for the Rev. Nick Setzer (MDiv ’11, MAPT ’12) at Northminster Presbyterian Church in Alpharetta, GA. Rodger led a youth event on practical theology for youth leaders in the South Alabama Presbytery in Mobile. He spoke at the Fellowship Breakfast for Decatur Presbyterian Church. Rodger delivered the Harbison Lectures and preached at the First Presbyterian Church in Pensacola, FL. He was the keynote speaker at a leadership event for the Greater Toronto presbyteries of the Presbyterian Church in Canada and preached at Armour Heights Presbyterian Church in Toronto. Rodger delivered the keynote at the Northwest Festival of Preaching in Seattle. He was keynote speaker for a leadership event at the Church Divinity School of the Pacific in Berkeley, CA. Rodger published a book review on "The Faith and Friendships of Teenage Boys" by Robert Dykstra, et. al. in the January issue of Interpretation Journal on Bible and Theology.

Dominique Robinson, Staff Associate, Contextual Education, preached in January at the Youth & Young Adult Experience at Little Rock AME Zion Church in Charlotte, NC. In February, she preached at Rock Grove AME Zion Church in Rock Hill, SC; Spring Hill AME Zion Church, Solid Rock AME Zion Church, and at the Pre-Lenten Revival at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Atlanta, GA. Dominique also lectured on “Effectively Reaching the iGeneration” at the AME Zion’s Board of Bishop’s Preaching Institute in Salisbury, NC, and instructed and preached at the YES Youth & Young Adult Weekend at Shorter AME Church in Denver, CO. In March, Dominique was a Lenten Observance Preacher at St. Paul AME Church in Jacksonville, FL, and the Pan Methodist Observance Chapel Preacher at Candler School of Theology in Atlanta, GA. She was a panelist for the Morehouse College Martin Luther King Chapel Assistants’ program entitled, “Why I Hate/Love the Church: the Relevance and Role of the Black Church in an Increasingly Cross-Cultural and Cosmopolitan World?” She also served as Bible Study Instructor and Luncheon Speaker for the AME Zion’s Women’s Home and Overseas Missionary Society Leadership Training Institute & Retreat in Black Mountain, NC. Dominique preached for the Message in the Middle at Dillard University, New Orleans, LA on April 9. Her article “Preach This, Tweet That” will be published in the May issue of Presbyterians Today.  On May 15 she will instruct the School of the Prophets for the New Jersey Annual Conference at St. Stephen AME Zion Church in Asbury Park, NJ. On May 18, she will preach for the Annual Women’s Day at Greater Smith Chapel AME Church in Atlanta, GA. On May 25th she will preach the closing of the Break into Your Summer Youth Conference at Ray of Hope Christian Center, Decatur, GA. On June 14, Dominique will conduct a youth workshop on “Social Media Swag” at the Conyers-Winder District Church School Convention and be a presenter at the Black Men Rock celebration in Decatur, GA. On June 22, Dominique will be one of three young preachers for the Atlanta District Home Missions 5th Sunday fellowship. July 10-11, Dominique will preach and teach at the Southwestern Delta Leadership Institute.  And later in July, she will present with Dr. Jeffrey Tribble at the AME Zion Christian Education Quadrennial Convention – “Zion University” – on spiritual formation in Greensboro, NC.

Stan Saunders, Associate Professor of New Testament, began a five-week series in March on “Creation, Temple, and the Body of Christ” at St. Luke’s Episcopal Church in Atlanta. He preached and delivered the Davidson Lectures at Oakridge Presbyterian Church in Oakridge, Tennessee. Stan will be on sabbatical during the Spring and Summer 2014 to work on a book, “A Dwelling Place for God,” which explores the place of creation in Biblical models of redemption.

Michael Thompson, Director of Communications, published two articles with the online journal Q Ideas ( “Atlanta Snow and the Need for a Bigger Table” was released in February. “Of Many Minds On Mental Illness” was released in April. In May, he launched a new personal blog called Candles at Dark ( 

Jeffery L. Tribble, Sr., Associate Professor of Ministry, received the Frederick Douglas Award from the International Ministers and Layman Association of The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in Spartanburg, SC on February 28.

Haruko Nawata Ward, Associate Professor of Church History, was a senior scholar respondent to the panel of younger scholars on “Building Solidarity by Sharing Pains and Struggles” at the Annual Conference of the Pacific Asian North American Asian Women in Theology and Ministry (PANAAWTM) (Conference theme: “Politics of Solidarity among Women of Color Scholars and Ministers”) at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary on March 22, 2014. She was nominated and accepted to serve on the board of advisors for the PANAAWTM. On May 28, she is reading a paper, “In Search of Women Martyrs' Voices in the Early Modern Jesuit Mission in Japan,” for a Conference, “Can the Native Christian Speak? Discerning the Voices of Indigenous Christians in Missionary and Colonial Archives,” Emory University.

Christine Yoder, Professor of Old Testament Language, Literature, and Exegesis, was named as one of six 2014-15 Henry Luce III Fellows in Theology by the Association of Theological Schools and the Henry Luce Foundation, Inc.  Her project title is “Contours of Desire in Israelite Wisdom Literature.” She attended the opening program for the Fellows at the Henry Luce Foundation in New York City, NY on April 14-15. Christine gave the Lenten Lectures at Lewinsville Presbyterian Church, McLean, VA on March 9-11. In May, Christine will be the speaker for the Women's Retreat for Central Presbyterian Church, Atlanta (May 2-4) and will participate in a study program called "Images of Israel" hosted at McAfee School of Theology. In June, Christine will lead a week-long study of Israelite wisdom literature at Montreat Conference Center, Montreat, NC (June 2-6), and will  present on the concepts of peace and well-being in the Old Testament at Central Presbyterian Church, Atlanta (June 15). She has recently been appointed to serve on the standing editorial board for Oxford Bibliographies Online, Biblical Studies. Christine continues to serve on the editorial board for the Encyclopedia of the Bible and its Reception, published by De Gruyter (Berlin/New York). Volume 8 in the series was published this spring.